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tes toefl adalah

Tes TOEFL adalah singkatan dari Test of English as a Foreign Language, merupakan jenis ujian penilaian kemampuan dan penggunaan bahasa Inggris oleh peserta ujian dalam lingkungan akademik, dan didirikan oleh Educational Testing Service (ETS) Amerika Serikat. 

Gambaran Umum Tentang Tes TOEFL

Seperti ujian sertifikasi internasional lainnya, tes TOEFL juga mengharuskan peserta ujian untuk menyelesaikan keempat tes dengan tingkat kesulitan yang terdistribusi dari mudah ke sulit. Selain itu, contoh-contoh soal TOEFL juga terus diperbarui oleh ELSA Speak setiap tahun, memberikan dukungan yang komprehensif kepada peserta ujian dalam proses persiapan mereka.

Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak
Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak

Saat ini, ada total 3 bentuk ujian TOEFL yang berbeda, namun TOEFL iBT tetap menjadi bentuk yang paling populer. Peserta yang mendaftar untuk mengikuti ujian ini akan menjalani semua 4 keterampilan di komputer. Selama lebih dari 3 – 4 jam, peserta harus menjawab semua yang mereka baca dan dengar dari soal ujian. Hasil ujian akan diumumkan sekitar 10 hari kemudian, dan sertifikat memiliki masa berlaku selama 2 tahun.

Tes pengucapan gratis

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>>> Read more: Soal Toefl Dalam Tes TOEFL Speaking beserta tips mencapai skor tinggi

Struktur Tes TOEFL Standar

Menurut ETS, tes TOEFL standar adalah jenis ujian yang mencakup semua 4 keterampilan Listening – Speaking – Reading – Writing, dilakukan dalam satu hari yang sama dengan tingkat kesulitan te yang terdistribusi dari yang mudah ke yang sulit.

Reading (Bagian Tes Membaca)

Pada bagian tes membaca, peserta akan membaca sebuah teks dan menjawab pertanyaan berdasarkan apa yang mereka baca dalam teks tersebut. Untuk tes TOEFL berbasis komputer, bagian pertanyaan dan teks akan ditampilkan secara bersamaan di layar komputer, memberikan kenyamanan kepada peserta dalam mengerjakan ujian.

Panjang teks dalam TOEFL biasanya sekitar 700 kata dengan 10 pertanyaan yang sesuai untuk setiap teks. Peserta harus membaca teks dan menjawab semua pertanyaan yang diberikan dalam waktu ujian Membaca (diperkirakan rata-rata 54 – 72 menit).

Listening (Bagian Tes Mendengarkan)

Tes mendengarkan dalam tes TOEFL iBT didistribusikan secara merata untuk mengukur kemampuan pemahaman mendengarkan peserta dengan akurat. Selama lebih dari 40 – hampir 60 menit dalam bagian ujian mendengarkan, peserta akan mendengarkan 5 – 7 dialog, setiap dialog berdurasi sekitar 3 – 5 menit, dengan total 28 – 39 pertanyaan untuk semua dialog.

Konten tes mendengarkan biasanya berupa percakapan akademis antara profesor, mahasiswa, konselor akademik, dan sebagainya. Adapun untuk ceramah-ceramah, peserta akan mendengarkan simulasi dari situasi yang biasanya terjadi dalam kelas, serta beberapa topik terkait situasi yang terjadi di universitas.

ELSA TOEFL

Speaking (Bagian Tes Berbicara)

Dalam tes TOEFL, pada bagian berbicara, peserta akan mengikuti ujian langsung dengan penguji. Peserta yang ikuti tes berbicara akan dilengkapi dengan sebuah mikrofon untuk merekam dan mengirim rekaman suara ke ETS untuk dinilai. Durasi total rata-rata bagian ini diharapkan sekitar 17 menit dengan 4 pertanyaan yang dibagi secara proporsional 1:3 untuk dua jenis utama:

  • Jenis Independent terdiri dari 1 pertanyaan: Peserta menjawab singkat tentang kehidupan sehari-hari dan mengungkapkan pendapat dan pandangan pribadi mereka dalam rentang waktu 45 – 60 detik.
  • Jenis Integrated terdiri dari 3 pertanyaan: Pada bagian ini, peserta akan mendengar/membaca atau membaca/mendengar, dan kemudian menjawab pertanyaan penguji berdasarkan informasi yang telah dibaca/dengar. Untuk meraih skor tertinggi dalam bagian ini, peserta harus menggabungkan banyak keterampilan, seperti menyaring, mengingat informasi, memberikan prioritas kepada pendengaran dan membaca informasi yang pendek. Selanjutnya, ketika menjawab, Anda juga perlu mengatur dan menggabungkan banyak informasi untuk menciptakan keseluruhan yang kohesif.

Catatan: Dalam semua jenis tes berbicara, peserta diberikan waktu persiapan sekitar 15 – 30 detik sebelum memulai berbicara.

Writing (Bagian Tes Menulis)

Bagian Menulis dalam ujian TOEFL terbagi menjadi dua bagian utama:

  • Bagian Terpadu (Integrated Writing): Pada bagian ini, peserta akan membaca sebuah teks pendek sekitar 230 – 300 kata dalam waktu 3 menit, dan mendengarkan kuliah singkat sekitar 2 menit yang memiliki topik yang sama dengan teks yang dibaca. Setelah menyelesaikan bagian membaca dan mendengarkan, peserta akan menulis sebuah esai pendek yang merangkum informasi yang mereka dengar yang terkait dengan teks yang mereka baca.
  • Bagian Independent (Menulis Bebas): Pada bagian ini, peserta menulis tentang pandangan dan pemikiran mereka sendiri tentang topik umum yang diberikan atau topik yang mereka pilih. Setelah menyajikan pandangan utama, peserta harus memberikan argumen tambahan dan contoh konkret untuk mendukung pendapat yang sedang dibahas.

Peserta melaksanakan kedua bagian tes ini dalam waktu maksimal 50 menit.

>>> Read more

Bagaimana Struktur Penilaian Tes TOEFL?

Skor tes TOEFL adalah jumlah dari 4 tes keterampilan yang dihitung dalam rentang skor antara 0 – 120. Skor rinci untuk setiap bagian ujian adalah sebagai berikut:

  • Bagian Membaca: 0 – 30 skor
  • Bagian Menulis: 0 – 30 skor
  • Bagian Berbicara: 0 – 30 skor
  • Bagian Mendengarkan: 0 – 30 skor

Catatan: Skor tes TOEFL adalah total dari semua 4 keterampilan dan tidak dibulatkan, oleh karena itu, Anda perlu merencanakan dengan bijak dan mempertimbangkan tujuan Anda ketika merancang rencana belajar.

ujian toefl adalah, toefl itp adalah, toefl ibt adalah, toefl pbt adalah
Struktur Penilaian Tes TOEFL

Contoh Tes TOEFL

Untuk membantu Anda memahami lebih lanjut tentang struktur dan pengaturan serta pengelompokan pertanyaan dalam ujian TOEFL, ELSA Speak akan memberikan 3 contoh tes TOEFL umum untuk setiap keterampilan.

Contoh tes bagian Membaca (Reading)

Test 1

Question 1-8

With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of modern sculpture in the United States. Direct carving ― in which the sculptors themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel ― must be recognized as something more than just a technique. Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well : that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony. For example, sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter. The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth-century tradition in which the making of a clay model was considered the creative act and the work was then turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble. Neoclassical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving the finished marble.

With the turn-of-the-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium. Even as early as the 1880’s and 1890’s, nonconformist European artists were attempting direct carving. By the second decade of the twentieth century, Americans ― Laurent and Zorach most notably ― had adopted it as their primary means of working. 

Born in France, Robert Laurent(1890-1970)was a prodigy who received his education in the United States. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker.

Back in New York City by 1910, Laurent began carving pieces such as The Priestess, which reveals his fascination with African, pre-Columbian, and South Pacific art. Taking a walnut plank, the sculptor carved the expressive, stylized design. It is one of the earliest examples of direct carving in American sculpture. The plank’s form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its irregular shape must have appealed to Laurent as a break with a long-standing tradition that required a sculptor to work within a perfect rectangle or square.

1. The word “medium”in line 5 could be used to refer to

 (A) stone or wood

 (B) mallet and chisel

 (C) technique

 (D) principle

2. What is one of the fundamental principles of direct carving?

 (A) A sculptor must work with talented assistants.

 (B) The subject of a sculpture should be derived from classical stories.

 (C) The material is an important element in a sculpture.

 (D) Designing a sculpture is a more creative activity than carving it. 

3. The word “dictates” in line 8 is closest in meaning to

 (A) reads aloud (B) determines

 (C) includes (D) records

 4. How does direct carving differ from the nineteenth-century tradition of sculpture?

 (A) Sculptors are personally involved in the carving of a piece.

 (B) Sculptors find their inspiration in neoclassical sources.

 (C) Sculptors have replaced the mallet and chisel with other tools.

 (D) Sculptors receive more formal training.

 5. The word “witnessed” in line 23 is closest in meaning to

 (A) influenced

 (B) studied

 (C) validated

 (D) observed

 6. Where did Robert Laurent learn to carve?

 (A) New York

 (B) Africa

 (C) The South Pacific

 (D) Paris

 7. The phrase “a break with ”in line 30 is closest in meaning to

 (A) a destruction of

 (B) a departure from

 (C) a collapse of

 (D) a solution to

 8. The piece titled The Priestess has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT

 (A) The design is stylized.

 (B) It is made of marble.

 (C) The carving is not deep.

 (D) It depicts the front of a person.

ELSA HarperCollins

Contoh tes bagian Menulis (Writing)

TOEFL Writing Task 2 – Independent Writing 

A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.

Contoh artikel:

A factory near the neighborhood

Having a factory near where one lives brings with it both advantages and disadvantages. An obvious advantage is an increase in the number of available jobs, and many people in the community might find employment in the new factory. The factory would bring money into the community in other ways as well. It would have to pay some taxes to the local government, and workers might go shopping or eat at a restaurant in the area before or after their shifts.

However, the factory would bring some disadvantages, too. Depending on what kind of factory it is, it might pollute the environment and bring down property values. It would be sure to increase traffic in the area, causing congestion and making it unsafe for children to play outside. Finally, the neighborhood would become a noisy, busy place. For all of these reasons, I would be opposed to the construction of a new factory near my community. While the employment opportunities would help the community, I believe it would be better for residents to commute to work and preserve the peace of our neighborhood. 

Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak
Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak

Contoh tes bagian Berbicara (Speaking)

Bagian tes Speaking akan mencakup jenis-jenis pertanyaan berikut ini:

Agree/Disagree Style Questions (independent)

“State whether you agree or disagree with the following statement. Then explain your reasons using specific details in your argument. Teachers should assign daily homework to students.”

Contoh jawaban:

I agree with the idea of giving children homework on a daily basis.  I feel this way for two reasons. 

First of all, I think that it will help children to retain what they learn for a much longer period of time.  The only real way for kids to absorb a lesson is to actually go home and repeat it as much as they possibly can.  And in the long run this kind of thing will lead to a lot more academic success.

Secondly, I believe that homework can actually give children an opportunity to bond with their parents.  For example, I got a lot of daily homework when I was in elementary school. And I’d go home and do it with my mom and dad, and I’d ask them questions whenever I was having trouble. And in time we actually became really close.

Paired Choice Style Questions (Independent)

There are many different approaches to academic studies, and all of them have specific benefits. Do you prefer to study for tests in a group, or to study alone? Include details and examples to support your explanation.”

Contoh jawaban:

I prefer studying for my tests all by myself.  I feel this way for two reasons.

First of all, I can focus entirely on what I need to learn.  When we study in a group everyone has different weak spots, and they all deserve to be touched on, even if some members of the group are really strong in those areas.  In contrast, when we work alone we can focus entirely on our own weak spots and therefore get the best possible test score.

Secondly, I’m easily distracted which can have disastrous effects when I study in a group.  For instance, last year I was preparing for a midterm exam with a bunch of classmates but we ended up chatting a lot about music and sports instead of studying.  And, therefore, my test score was quite bad.

Good Idea Style (Independent)

“Some companies have rules that forbid employees from using personal cell phones during working hours. Do you think this is a good idea? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.”

Contoh jawaban:

I think it’s a really terrible idea to tell employees that they can’t use their phones during working hours. 

First of all, our personal phones are the only way for us to hear about emergencies affecting our loved ones.  And this is something we want to hear about as soon as humanly possible.  You know, if a worker feels nervous about being out of touch with his loved ones during the day, he might actually start looking around for a job that lets him use his phone and this would be really bad for business.

Secondly, I think personal phones can maybe improve our morale at work.  We can relieve our stress by making a quick phone call or looking at a social media post.  And if we feel happier we’ll probably performer a lot better.

Selain itu, bagian tes Speaking TOEFL juga mencakup 3 jenis pertanyaan berikut:

  • Campus Announcement (Integrated)
  • General to Specific (Integrated)
  • Academic Lecture (Integrated)
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Penutup

ELSA Speak telah membantu Anda memahami lebih baik tentang struktur tes TOEFL dan cara menghitung skornya. Setelah membaca artikel ini, jika Anda merasa bahwa sertifikasi ini sesuai dengan kebutuhan Anda, jangan ragu untuk merencanakan persiapan TOEFL Anda sendiri.

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