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phrasal verb

Phrasal verbs merupakan pengetahuan yang menyebabkan banyak kesulitan bagi orang yang belajar bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa kedua karena jumlahnya yang banyak, semantik dan tata bahasanya yang beragam, serta ketidakteraturannya. Selain itu, pelajar seringkali merasa kewalahan dengan banyaknya metode belajar bahasa Inggris, sehingga mereka tidak tahu metode mana yang tepat untuk mereka.

1. Apa itu phrasal verb?

Phrasal verb adalah kelompok kata yang berfungsi sebagai kata kerja dalam suatu kalimat dan terdiri dari kata kerja yang diikuti oleh preposisi dan/atau kata keterangan.

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Preposisi dan kata keterangan ini disebut juga dengan partikel, yaitu kata-kata yang mempunyai fungsi gramatika tetapi tidak termasuk dalam kelompok kata inti dan tidak dapat berubah bentuknya.

PHRASAL VERB = VERB + PARTICLE (PREPOSITION/ADVERB)

Contoh:

  • Go up = kata kerja “go” + partikel “up” (meningkat).
  • Cut back on = kata kerja “cut” + partikel “back” + partikel“on” (mengurangi)

2. Ciri-ciri phrasal verb

2.1. Ciri-ciri phrasal verb ditinjau dari segi tata bahasa

Kalau ditinjau dari segi tata bahasa, phrasal verb dapat dibedakan atas 2 kelompok utama: 

  • Transitive phrasal verbs yang memiliki objek langsung 

Contoh: I told him to leave, but he just won’t go away. (Aku menyuruhnya pergi, tapi dia tidak mau pergi.)

  • Intransitive phrasal verbs yang tidak memiliki objek langsung 

Contoh: Yesterday John got into an argument with his wife. (Kemarin John terlibat pertengkaran dengan istrinya.)

Selain itu, transitive phrasal verbs juga dapat dibagi menjadi dua kelompok kecil: 

Separable phrasal verbs yang dapat dipisahkan oleh objek. Objek ini dapat diletakkan di tengah atau setelah phrasal verbs.

Contoh: 

  • She puts down my name. (Dia menuliskan namaku.)
  • She puts my name down.

Inseparable phrasal verbs yang tidak dapat dipisahkan oleh objek. Objek ini hanya dapat diletakkan di setelah phrasal verbs.

  • Sarah bumped into the wall. (Sarah menabrak dinding)
  • Sarah bumped the wall into. (SALAH)
phrasal verbs

2.2. Ciri-ciri phrasal verb ditinjau dari segi makna

Sebagian besar phrasal verbs memiliki lebih dari satu makna. Makna-makna ini mungkin memiliki kesamaan satu sama lain.

Contoh:

  • Stephen King’s famous novel, “It”, came out at 1986. (Novel terkenal Stephen King, “It”, diterbitkan pada tahun 1986.)

Come out: diterbitkan, dirilis, ditayangkan perdana (film, buku).

  • The sun rarely comes out on rainy days. (Matahari jarang muncul pada hari hujan.)

Come out: muncul

  • The news will come out tomorrow. (Berita tersebut akan diumumkan kepada banyak orang besok.)

Come out: diumumkan

phrasal verb

Selain itu, makna-makna ini juga bisa saja tidak berhubungan sama sekali

  • My friend kindly took me in when I first arrived here. (Teman saya dengan baik hati menerima saya ketika saya pertama kali tiba di sini.)

Take in: menerima (menyediakan tempat di rumah seorang)

  • He was completely taken in by my lie. (Dia benar-benar tertipu oleh kebohonganku).

Take in: menipu

2.3. Phrasal verbs bersifat netral 

Kebanyakan phrasal verbs bersifat netral atau informal. Oleh karena itu, phrasal verbs sering digunakan dalam bahasa lisan dan tulisan informal (penusilan pesan/ surat, dll).

>>Baca: 70+ contoh action verb yang paling populer dalam bahasa Inggris

3. Kumpulan 100 Phrasal Verbs yang populer

NoPhrasal verbArtiContoh
1Bear out = confirmmembuktikanThe other witnesses will bear out what I say.
2Bring in = introducemengajukan/menampilkanThey want to bring in a bill to limit arms exports.
3Gear up for = prepare forbersiapCycle organizations are gearing up for National Bike Week.
4Pair up with = team up withberpasangan denganSally decided to pair up with Jason for the dance contest.
5Cut down = reducememotongWe need to cut the article down to 1,000 words.
6Look back on = remembermengingat kembaliShe usually looks back on her childhood.
7Bring up = raisemengasuh/membesarkanHe was brought up by his aunt.
8Hold on = waitmenunggu sebentarHold on a minute while I get my breath back.
9Turn down = refusemenolakHe has been turned down for ten jobs so far.
10Talk over = discussmembahasThey talked over the proposal and decided to give it their approval.
11Leave out = not include, omitmengabaikan/meninggalkanIf you are a student, you can omit questions 16–18.
12Break downmerusak/memecahThe telephone system has broken down.
13Put forward = suggestmengusulkanCan I put you forward for club secretary?
14Dress upBerdandanThere’s no need to dress up—come as you are.
15Stand forsingkatan‘The book’s by T.C. Smith.’ ‘What does the ‘T.C.’ stand for?’
16Keep up = continueMeneruskan/MempertahanakanWell done! Keep up the good work/Keep it up.
17Look after = take care ofmenjaga/merawatWho’s going to look after the children while you’re away?
18Work out = calculatemenghitungIt’ll work out cheaper to travel by bus.
19Show up = arrivehadir/datang It was getting late when she finally showed up.
20Come about = happenterjadiCan you tell me how the accident came about.
21Hold up = stop, delaymenghambatAn accident is holding up traffic.
22Call off = cancelmembatalkanThe game was called off because of bad weather.
23Look for = expect, hope formencari/mengharapWe shall be looking for an improvement in your work this term.
24Fix up = arrangemenyediakan/mempersiapkanI’ll fix you up with a place to stay.
25Get by = manage to livehidupHow does she get by on such a small salary?
26Check inmendaftar/mendaftarkan diriPlease check in at least an hour before departure.
27Check outcheck out (memeriksa/meninggalkan/keluar dari)Please check out at the reception area.
28Drop by (drop in on)singgahI thought I’d drop in on you while I was passing.
29Come up withmemberikan/menemukan (ide/rencana/solusi)She came up with a new idea for increasing sales.
30Call up = phonemeneleponShe’s out for lunch. Please call up later.
31Call on = visitmengunjungiMy mother’s friends call upon her every Wednesday.
32Think over = considermempertimbangkanLet me think over your request for a day or so.
33Talk over = discussmembicarakanThey talked over the proposal and decided to give it their approval.
34Move onberpindah/berjalan terusCan we move on to the next item on the agenda?
35Go over = examinememeriksaGo over your work before you hand it in.
36Put sth down = write sth, make a note of sthmencatatThe meeting’s on the 22nd. Put it down in your diary.
37Clear up = tidymembereskan/merapikanI’m fed up with clearing up after you!
38Carry out = executemelaksanakan/melakukan/menjalankanExtensive tests have been carried out on the patient.
39Break inmendobrakBurglars had broken in while we were away.
40Back upmendukung/membantuI’ll back you up if they don’t believe you.
41Turn away = turn downmengusir/menolakThey had nowhere to stay so I couldn’t turn them away.
42Wake up = get upmembangunWake up and listen!
43Warm upmemanaskan badanLet’s warm up before entering the main part.
44Turn offmematikanThey’ve turned off the water while they repair a burst pipe.
45Turn onmenghidupkanI’ll turn the television on.
46Fall downruntuhMany buildings in the old part of the city are falling down.
47Find outmenemukanI haven’t found anything out about him yet.
48Get offberangkatWe got off straight after breakfast.
49Give upberhenti/menyerahkanThey gave up without a fight.
50Go up = increasemeningkatThe price of cigarettes is going up.
51Pick someone upmenjemputI’ll pick you up at five.
52Take upmemulai (aktiviti yang baru)He takes up his duties next week.
53Speed upmempercepatCan you try and speed things up a bit?
54Grow updewasaTheir children have all grown up and left home now.
55Catch up withmenyusul/mengejarGo on ahead. I’ll catch up with you.
56Cut offmemotongHe had his finger cut off in an accident at work.
57Account formenjelaskanHow do you account for the show’s success?
58Belong toMilikWho does this watch belong to?
59Break awaymelarikan diriThe prisoner broke away from his guards.
60Delight insenangShe delights in walking.
61Get across (to sb)menerangkan/menjelaskanI was trying to get across how much I admired them.
62Get aftermenyusulDon’t just stand there talking. Get after them!
63Get alongmemiliki hubungan yang baikI don’t really get along with my sister’s husband.
64Get aroundberkelilingSpain last week and Germany this week – he gets around, doesn’t he?
65Get atmencapaiI’ve put the cake on a high shelf where he can’t get at it.
66Get awaymelepaskan diriThe criminal got away from prison.
67Get backkembaliFinally, she got back to me.
68Get by (on,in,with st)bertahan hidup hidup/mengatasi (suatu keadaan)How can he get by on so little money?
69Get aboutberjalanShe was finding it increasingly difficult to get about.
70Go alongpergi bersama-samaI will go along with him to Japan next year.
71Go awaypergi/berangkatTell him to go away!
72Go beyond somethingmelebihiThe cost of marketing should not go beyond 10% avenue.
73Go downmenurunThe crime rate shows no signs of going down.
74Go throughmengalamiNo one can imagine what he’s going through.
75Go upnaik/meningkatShe always worries when her weight goes up.
76Look backmengingat kembaliI miss my grandmother so much when I look back on my childhood.
77Look for (st)mencariWhat are you looking for?
78Look forward to (st)menantikanI’m looking forward to coming home.
79Look out (for sb/st)memerhatikanYou should look out for wildlife species in the forest.
80Look upmencari (keterangan dalam kamus)Oxford Dictionary is the best choice to look up new words.
81Take after sbmenyerupaiJohn takes after his mother.
82Take offberangkat/lepas landasThe plane took off 5 minutes ago.
83Take sth downmencatatI took down everything my leader said to me.
84Take sth backmengembalikanThere is a mistake in the color of the shirt I ordered so I will take it back.
85Take sth upmemulai (aktiviti yang baru)He has taken up dancing.
86Clean something up membersihkanPlease clean up your bedroom before you go outside.
87Chip in ikut sertaIf everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.
88Cheer somebody up menghiburI brought you some flowers to cheer you up.
89Cheer upterhiburShe cheered up when she heard the good news.
90Check out somebody/ somethingmelihat (dengan cara yang tidak sopan)Check out the crazy hair on that guy!
91Check somebody/ something out memeriksaThe company checks out all new employees.
92Check outcheck out (memeriksa/meninggalkan/keluar dari)You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.
93Check in mendaftar/mendaftarkan diriWe will get the hotel keys when we check in.
94Catch upmenyusul/mengejarYou’ll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.
95Fall in love (with s.o)jatuh cintaI fell in love with him at first sight.
96Fall intotertangkap/terlilit utangThe shop fell into debt.
97Fall out ofjatuh dariThe cat fell out of the window.
98Fall downjatuhUnluckily, the cup fell down under the stairs.
99Fall offjatuh dariJane broke her leg because she fell off the horse.
100Fall overjatuh dariSam fell over a chair when he came into the house.
Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak
Percaya diri berkomunikasi dengan ELSA Speak

4. Cara mempelajari phrasal verbs secara efektif

  • Belajar phrasal verb satu per satu: misalnya belajar “take off” atau “ put on” daripada belajar banyak phrasal verbs sekaligus. Dengan cara ini, Anda dapat fokus pada setiap phrasal verb dan mempelajari cara menggunakannya.
  • Belajar phrasal verb dari contoh: Ini akan membantu Anda mengingat  phrasal verb dengan lebih mudah. Baca dan simpan contoh dalam teks, novel, atau situs web berbahasa Inggris, sehingga Anda dapat melihatnya digunakan dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
  • Gunakan aplikasi belajar: Aplikasi belajar seperti Duolingo, Memrise, atau Quizlet menyediakan latihan dan flashcards untuk membantu Anda belajar dan mengingat kosakata. Aplikasi ini dapat membantu Anda fokus pada belajar dan berlatih menggunakan phrasal verbs untuk membuat kalimat.
  • Tonton video tutorial: Tonton video tutorial di YouTube atau situs pendidikan seperti Coursera. Ini membantu Anda lebih memahami tata bahasa dan penggunaannya dalam berbagai situasi.
  • Latih: Latihan adalah cara terbaik untuk mengingat  phrasal verbs. Berlatihlah menulis kalimat menggunakan phrasal verbs yang baru kita pelajari dari pelajaran atau percakapan dengan penutur asli untuk meningkatkan kemampuan Anda dalam menggunakannya.

>>Baca:

5. LATIHAN

A. Pilihlah jawaban yang benar diantara A, B, C, dan D

1. The teacher asked me to _____ the new vocabulary words.

A. look into

B. look up

C. look after

D. look for

2. We should _____ a solution to this problem as soon as possible.

A. come up with

B. come over

C. come about

D. come into

3. I can’t wait to _____ my new dress at the party tonight.

A. show off

B. show up

C. show around

D. show in

4. Peter never _____ his homework on time.

A. turns in

B. turns on

C. turns over

D. turns up

5. The company is planning to _____ its operations in Asia.

A. carry away

B. carry out

C. carry on

D. carry off

B. Pilihlah jawaban yang benar diantara A, B, C, dan D 

1. _____ your coat on, it’s cold outside.

A. Put

B. Take

C. Get

D. Bring

2. She has a lot of responsibility at work, but she always manages to _____ her duties.

A. keep up with

B. keep out of

C. keep away from

D. keep in touch with

3. We need to _____ a plan for the weekend.

A. make out

B. make up

C. make over

D. make with

4. He always _____ comic books when he’s feeling stressed.

A. looks into

B. looks after

C. looks up to

D. looks through

5. The store had to _____ the defective products.

A. throw out

B. throw away

C. throw off

D. throw over

JAWABAN

A
1. B. look up: mencari informasi→ “look up the new vocabulary words” mencari kosakata
2. A. come up with: memberikan ide/rencana/solusi.→ “come up with a solution to this problem” memberikan solusi untuk masalah ini
3. A. show off: menyombongkan/memamerkan → “show off my new dress”: memamerkan gaun baru
4. A. turns in: menyerahkan→ “turns in his homework”:  menyerahkan PR
5. B. carry out: melaksanakan/melakukan → “carry out its operations”: menjalankan operasinya
B
1. A. Put on: memakai→ “Put your coat on”: memakai mantel
2. A. keep up with: mengikuti→ “She always manages to keep up with her duties”: Dia selalu berhasil mengikuti tugasnya.
3. B. make up: merencanakan/membuat rencana→ “We need to make up a plan for the weekend”: Kita perlu membuat rencana untuk akhir pekan
4. D. looks through: meneliti→ “He always looks through comic books when he’s feeling stressed”: Dia selalu meneliti buku komik ketika dia merasa stres
5. B. throw away: membuang → “The store had to throw out the defective products”: Toko harus membuang produk yang cacat

Singkatnya, phrasal verbs adalah bagian penting dari bahasa Inggris dan perlu dipelajari dan digunakan secara efektif agar dapat berkomunikasi dan menulis bahasa Inggris dengan lancar. Demikian pengetahuan tentang phrasal verbs, ELSA Speak berharap Anda bisa lebih memahami apa itu phrasal verbs dan penggunaannya dalam bahasa Inggris.

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