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past perfect tense

Past Perfect Tense adalah salah satu dari 12 tenses dalam bahasa Inggris dan memiliki peran penting dalam struktur tata bahasa Inggris. Past Perfect Tense digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari atau dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris percakapan. Mari kita pelajari secara menyeluruh rumus, penggunaan, dan aplikasi pengetahuan yang telah dipelajari dalam latihan-latihan di artikel berikut bersama ELSA Speak!

Rangkuman pengetahuan tentang Past Perfect Tense
Rangkuman pengetahuan tentang Past Perfect Tense

Apa itu “Past Perfect Tense”? (definisi Past Perfect Tense)

Past Perfect Tense adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja untuk menggambarkan bahwa suatu tindakan yang terjadi sebelum tindakan lainnya di masa lalu. Tindakan yang terjadi sebelumnya diungkapkan menggunakan Past Perfect Tense. Tindakan yang terjadi kemudian diungkapkan menggunakan Past Simple Tense.

Rumus Past Perfect Tense

Jenis KalimatRumusnya
Kalimat positifS + had + V3/ed
Kalimat negatifS + had not + V3/ed
Kalimat interrogatifHad + S + V3/ed?
Kalimat tanya Wh-Wh- + had + (not) + S + V3/ed?

Rumus Past Perfect Tense Positif

S + had + V3/ed + … (Past Participle)

Contoh:

Tes pengucapan gratis

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They had eaten all the food before we came. 

(Mereka telah makan semua makanan sebelum kita datang.)

The party started after they had cooked for 3 hours. 

(Pesta dimulai setelah mereka memasak selama 3 jam.)

Rumus Past Perfect Tense
Rumus Past Perfect Tense Positif

Rumus Past Perfect Tense Negatif 

S + had not + V3/ed + …  (Past Participle)
*had not= hadn’t

Contoh:

The children hadn’t done any housework by the time we got home. 

(Anak-anak belum melakukan pekerjaan rumah apapun saat kita pulang ke rumah.)

He hadn’t completed the task when his boss came back.  

(Dia belum menyelesaikan tugas ketika bosnya kembali.)

Rumus Past Perfect Tense
Rumus Past Perfect Tense Negatif

Rumus Past Perfect Tense Interrogatif 

A. Kalimat tanya Yes – No

Had + S + V3/ed + …?
Yes, S + had/ No, S + hadn’t.

Contoh:

Had our daughter finished her homework when you got home?

(Sudahkah putri kita selesai mengerjakan pekerjaan rumahnya ketika kamu pulang?)

Yes, she had.

(Ya, sudah.)

Had the meeting ended before you called?

(Apakah pertemuan sudah berakhir sebelum kamu menelepon?)

No, it hadn’t.

(Tidak.)

Rumus Past Perfect Tense
Rumus Past Perfect Tense Interrogatif

B. Kalimat tanya Wh-

  • Kata tanya bukan Subject
What/ Where/ When/ Why/ How/ Who(m) + had + (not) + S + V3/ed + …?

Contoh:

a. What had they done by the time you entered the hall?

(Apa yang telah mereka lakukan pada saat kamu masuk ke ruangan?)

b. Where had the host gone when the event started?

(Ke mana tuan rumah pergi ketika acara dimulai?)

c. Who(m) had they met before they came to our office?

(Siapa yang mereka temui sebelum mereka datang ke kantor kita?)

d. Why hadn’t our son done any housework by the time we got home?

(Mengapa anak laki-laki kita tidak melakukan pekerjaan rumah apapun pada saat kita pulang ke rumah?)

Rumus
Rumus Kalimat Pertanyaan Wh- dalam Past Perfect Tense 
  • Kata tanya adalah Subject
What/ Who + had (not) + V3/ed + …? (be)

Contoh:

a. What had happened before we got here?

(Apa yang telah terjadi sebelum kita sampai di sini?)

b. Who had eaten all the candies before the children came?

(Siapa yang telah memakan semua permen sebelum anak-anak datang?)

>>Baca:

Tanda pengenalan Past Perfect Tense

Tanda pertama

Past Perfect Tense biasanya digunakan dalam klausa dalam kalimat kompleks bersama dengan klausa lain yang menggunakan Past Simple Tense.

Contoh:

When they called, we had cooked dinner. (Ketika mereka menelepon, kami sudah memasak makan malam.)

(Klausa 1: Past Simple Tense) (Klausa 2: Past Perfect Tense)

They had lived there until their son turned 10. (Mereka telah tinggal di sana sampai anak laki-laki mereka berusia 10 tahun.)

(Klausa 1: Past Perfect Tense) (Klausa 2: Past Simple Tense)

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Ketika dua klausa memiliki subjek yang sama dan kata penghubung di antara mereka adalah ‘before’ atau ‘after’, kita dapat menghilangkan subjek dan mengubah kata kerja dalam klausa yang mengandung ‘before’ atau ‘after’ menjadi bentuk V-ing.

Contoh:

He had called her many times before he left the city. (Dia telah menelponnya berkali-kali sebelum meninggalkan kota.)

➥ He had called her many times before leaving the city. 

After they had washed the dishes, they watched TV. (Setelah mereka mencuci piring, mereka menonton TV.)

➥  After having washed the dishes, they watched TV. 

Tanda kedua

Dua klausa terhubung oleh salah satu kata penghubung waktu seperti: 

Before, after, when, by the time, by the end of + time in the past, as soon as, for + [jumlah waktu], dll.

Cara menggunakan Past Perfect Tense

contoh
Contoh kalimat Past Perfect Tense

Menggambarkan tindakan yang telah terjadi dan selesai sebelum tindakan lain di masa lalu

Contoh:

That customer had canceled his order by the time we contacted him. 

(Pelanggan itu telah membatalkan pesanannya sebelum kami menghubunginya.)

People rebuilt their houses after the storm had destroyed them. 

(Orang-orang membangun kembali rumah mereka setelah badai menghancurkannya.)

Menggambarkan tindakan yang telah terjadi dan berlangsung hingga suatu titik waktu di masa lalu

Contoh:

By the time he changed his job, he had worked for that company for 10 years. 

(Pada saat dia mengganti pekerjaannya, dia telah bekerja untuk perusahaan tersebut selama 10 tahun.)

When we first met in London, she had lived there for 5 years.

(Ketika pertama kali kita bertemu di London, dia telah tinggal di sana selama 5 tahun.)

Menggambarkan tindakan yang terjadi sebelum titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu

Contoh:

By 1998, that organization had built 219 houses for poor people. 

(Pada tahun 1998, organisasi itu telah membangun 219 rumah untuk orang miskin.)

She had met the sales target by the end of last month. 

(Dia telah mencapai target penjualan pada akhir bulan lalu.)

Digunakan dalam klausa If dalam kalimat conditional sentence type 3 untuk mengasumsikan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan masa lalu

Contoh:

Last night, if you hadn’t left the door open, the burglar couldn’t have gotten in. 

(Semalam, jika kamu tidak meninggalkan pintu terbuka, pencuri tidak akan bisa masuk.)

If she had given me your phone number, I would have called you last night. 

(Jika dia memberikan nomor teleponmu kepadaku, aku akan meneleponmu semalam.)

Digunakan dalam kalimat ‘wish’ untuk mengungkapkan penyesalan terhadap sesuatu/tindakan di masa lalu:

Contoh:

I wish I hadn’t talked to her like that. 

(Aku berharap aku tidak berbicara padanya seperti itu.)

I wish that disaster hadn’t happened

(Aku berharap bencana itu tidak terjadi.)

Beberapa contoh kalimat Past Perfect Tense

By the end of last year, that team had won 5 prizes. 

(Pada akhir tahun yang lalu, tim tersebut telah memenangkan 5 hadiah.)

The meeting had ended before we got there. 

(Pertemuan tersebut telah berakhir sebelum kami tiba di sana.)

That employee hadn’t completed her task when our boss asked her about it. 

(Pegawai itu belum menyelesaikan tugasnya ketika bos kami bertanya kepadanya tentang hal itu.)

After they had planted the new trees, they reopened the park. 

(Setelah mereka menanam pohon-pohon baru, mereka membuka kembali taman tersebut.)

Our son had eaten a lot of cake before we went to their house.

(Putra kami telah makan banyak kue sebelum kami pergi ke rumah mereka.)

If I hadn’t gone to the party that night, I could have taken care of her.

(Jika aku tidak pergi ke pesta malam itu, aku bisa menjaga dia.)

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She wouldn’t feel tired now if she hadn’t stayed up late last night. 

(Dia tidak akan merasa lelah sekarang jika dia tidak begadang semalam.)

If you had invited her to your party, she wouldn’t feel sad now.

(Jika kamu mengundang dia ke pesta kamu, dia tidak akan merasa sedih sekarang.)

I wish they hadn’t got on that plane.

(Aku berharap mereka tidak naik pesawat itu.)

We wish we hadn’t sold our house then.

(Kami berharap kami tidak menjual rumah kami pada saat itu.)

Had our son finished cooking when you got home?

(Apakah putra kami sudah selesai memasak ketika kamu pulang?)

When I called you this morning, had you contacted that customer?

(Ketika aku meneleponmu pagi ini, apakah kamu sudah menghubungi pelanggan itu?)

How long had he worked there before he left?

(Berapa lama dia telah bekerja di sana sebelum dia berhentinya?)

Where had you lived before you moved to this city? 

(Di mana kamu tinggal sebelum kamu pindah ke kota ini?)

Who(m) had you lived with before you started living alone? 

(Dengan siapa kamu tinggal sebelum kamu mulai tinggal sendiri?)

Silahkan lihat video di bawah ini untuk beberapa contoh tambahan tentang Past Perfect Tense:

Perbedaan antara Past Perfect Tense dengan struktur yang seringkali keliru

Past Perfect Tense dan Past Simple Tense

Past Perfect dan Past Simple adalah dua bentuk tense dalam bahasa Inggris yang seringkali membingungkan. Berikut ini adalah perbedaan antara Past Simple dan Past Perfect agar tidak lagi bingung antara kedua bentuk tense ini:

Past Perfect TensePast Simple Tense
❖ Menggambarkan dan menekankan tindakan yang terjadi sebelum tindakan lain di masa lalu.
❖ Biasanya digunakan bersama dengan klausa menggunakan Past Simple untuk menunjukkan tindakan yang terjadi setelahnya atau berhubungan dengan suatu waktu tertentu di masa lalu.
❖ Hanya menggambarkan satu tindakan yang terjadi (dan selesai) pada satu waktu tertentu di masa lalu.
❖ Tidak perlu digunakan bersama dengan tense lain seperti dalam Past Perfect.
Contoh:
They had lived there until their son turned 10. (Mereka telah tinggal di sana sampai anak laki-laki mereka berusia 10 tahun.)
Contoh:
They moved there when their son was 10. (Mereka pindah ke sana ketika anak laki-laki mereka berusia 10 tahun.)
Perbedaan Past Perfect dan Past Simple 

Past Perfect Tense Dan Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous menggambarkan kelanjutan berkelanjutan dari suatu tindakan tanpa gangguan hingga suatu titik waktu di masa lalu atau sampai terjadinya tindakan lain.

Contoh:

I had thought about him before we met last week.

(Saya telah memikirkan tentangnya sebelum kita bertemu minggu lalu.)

→ Analisis: Kita hanya tahu bahwa tindakan “memikirkan tentangnya” terjadi sebelum tindakan “bertemu” tanpa mengetahui apakah itu berlangsung terus-menerus atau tidak.

I had been thinking about him before we met last week.

(Saya telah terus memikirkan tentangnya sebelum kita bertemu minggu lalu.)

→ Analisis: Penutur menekankan bahwa tindakan “memikirkan tentangnya” berlangsung terus-menerus sebelum tindakan “bertemu”.

Latihan tentang Past Perfect Tense

Latihan 1: Ubah kata kerja di bawah ini menjadi bentuk Past Participle (V3/ed)

1. go8. get
2. do9. sell
3. think10. leave
4. move11. build
5. live12. eat
6. contact13. meet
7. finish14. win
15. invite

Jawaban:

1. gone8. got
2. done9. sold
3. thought10. left
4. moved11. built
5. lived12. eaten
6. contacted13. met
7. finished14. won
15. invited

Latihan 2: Ubah kata kerja dalam tanda kurung menjadi bentuk Past Perfect Tense.

1. They________________ (sell) their house before we contacted them. 

2. By 2020, we________________ (export) 25000 products.  

3. They________________  (plant) 50 trees by the time we got there.

4. He________________  (win) many races before he retired in 1991. 

5. My mother________________ (use) that phone for 10 years before she bought a new one last week. 

6. After my brother________________ (cook) lunch, I cleaned up the kitchen  

7. Because he________________ (cheat) on her, she broke up with him.

Jawaban:

1. had sold4. had won
2. had exported5. had used
3. had planted6. had cooked
7. had cheated

Latihan 3: Pilih kata/frasa yang tepat untuk mengisi bagian yang kosong.

1. Where had you________ (go) before you got home?

A. go          B. gone        C. went           D. had hone

2. Jack and I ________ (bake) a cake before she bought this one.

A. baked           B. had bake           C. baking           D. had baked

3. After we had tidied our rooms, we________ (play) football. 

A. played         B. had played           C. were playing           D. play

4. How long had you________ (work) for that company before you left?

A. worked           B. been working          C. work          D. A và B

5. He had lived in that city for many years before we________ (meet) in 2018.

A. meet          B. had met          C. met          D. meeting

6. Anna, you________ (take) the money before you asked, right?

A. took          B. had take          C. had taken            D. had took 

7. They ________ (do) anything when we got there. 

A. didn’t do         B. hadn’t done           C. had done           D. did

Jawaban:

1. B4. D
2. B5. C
3. A6. C
7. B

Latihan 4: Ubah kata kerja dalam tanda kurung menjadi bentuk Past Simple Tense atau Past Perfect Tense.

1. We________________ (cook) dinner before she brought us the soup. 

2. After having swum for a while, we________________ (build) some sand castles. 

3. After I________________ (work) here for 2 years, my boss gave me a promotion last month. 

4. We________________ (order) some pizzas after having worked all day.

5. Before we got there, the meeting________________ (end). 

6. They________________ (buy) a lot of things before I told them to stop.  

7. By the end of last month, that employee________________ (meet) the sales target. 

Jawaban:

1. had cooked 4. ordered
2. built5. had ended
3. had worked6. had bought 
7. had met

Latihan 5: Sambungkan klausa di kolom sebelah kiri dengan klausa di kolom sebelah kanan sehingga logis.

1. We had dated for nearly 8 yearsA. so I stopped trusting them. 
2. By the time we started our business,B. we started using plastic ones.
3. They called the policeC. after they had disappointed us many times.
4. They had lied to me so many times,D. they had opened many branches.
5. We ended our contract with that companyE. they hadn’t started the meeting.
6. Because the children had broken so many bowls, F. before we got married in 2025.  
7. When we got there, G. as their motorbike was stolen. 

Jawaban:

1. F4. A
2. D5. C
3. G6. B
7. E

Latihan 6: Susun ulang kata-kata di bawah ini menjadi kalimat yang benar.

1. getting married/ before/ in 1999/ had dated/ they/ for many years.

2. played games/ had/ before/ they/ the children/ done their homework/ .

3. had/ by the end of last week/ sold many products/ that salesperson/ .

4. you/ before/ had/ went to bed/ locked the door/ you/ ?

5. came to the party/ they/ they/ had/ after/ had dinner/ .

6. last Sunday/ before/ heard a lot about him/ we/ first met him/ had/ we/ .

7. when/ read my message/ texted her again/ she/ I/ hadn’t/ . 

Jawaban:

1. They had dated for many years before getting married in 1999.  

2. The children had done their homework before they played games.  

3. That salesperson had sold many products by the end of last week.  

4. Had you locked the door before you went to bed? 

5. They came to the party after they had had dinner.  

6. We had heard a lot about him before we first met him last Sunday.  

7. She hadn’t read my message when I texted her again. 

Latihan 7: Setiap kalimat di bawah ini memiliki kesalahan. Temukan dan perbaiki kesalahan tersebut.

1. The Sales Department had meet their targets by the end of last quarters.

2. By the time we had arrived, another group had taken our table.  

3. We had talk for a while when she got there.  

4. My elder brother lived with my parents until he turned 25.  

5. By the age of 27, he travelled around the world. (Now he’s 29.)

6. They had discussed anything when I entered the meeting. 

7. She worked there for 3 years when she got promoted for the first time. 

Jawaban:

1. had meet → had met

2. had arrived → arrived

3. had talk → had talked

4. lived → had lived

5. travelled→ had travelled  

6. had discussed → hadn’t discussed

7. worked → had worked

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Latihan 8: Ubah kata kerja dalam tanda kurung menjadi bentuk Past Perfect Tense atau Past Simple Tense untuk melengkapi bagian di bawah ini.

Last week, I________________ (go) camping with my friends (1). I________________ (not go) camping until then (2), so I________ always________ (look) forward to it (3). I________________ (prepared) a lot (4). Before the camping day, I________________ (buy) a lot of snacks (5). I________ also________ (wash) my tent (6). On the camping day, we________________ (have) a lot of fun (7). I really want to go camping again. 

Jawaban:

1. went4. had prepared
2. hadn’t gone5. had bought
3. had always looked6. had also washed
7. had

Latihan 9: Buatlah pertanyaan untuk bagian yang digarisbawahi.

1. She had worked for that company for 3 years until she decided to leave. 

2. He had gone to the mall with his friend before he came home. 

3. He had lived with his friend before he moved in with her. 

4. Our son had studied poorly before we encouraged him. 

5. They had sold 113 phones before we got there. 

6. They had called another company before they contacted us. 

7. She had watched this movie 5 times when I introduced it to her. 

Jawaban:

1. How long had she worked for that company until she decided to leave?

2. What had he done before he came home? 

3. Who(m) had he lived with before he moved in with her?  

4. How had our/ your son studied before we/ you encouraged him?  

5. How many phones had they sold before we/ you got there?

6. Who(m) had they called before they contacted us/ you? 

7. How many times had he watched this movie when you introduced it to her?

Latihan 10: Tulis ulang kalimat di bawah ini dengan kata yang diberikan.

1. He had called that customer before he entered the meeting. 

→ After… 

2. Someone had turned off the lights before we got out of the room.  

→ By the time… 

3. I checked the reports again after they had corrected them. 

→ Before… 

4. After he had worked for hours, he left home for the gym. 

→ After having… 

5. She had applied for many other jobs before she came to that interview

→ Before coming…  

Jawaban:

1. After he had called that customer, he entered the meeting.

2. By the time we got out of the room, someone had turned off the lights.  

3. Before I checked the reports again, they had corrected them.

4. After having worked for hours, he left home for the gym.

5. Before coming to this job interview, she had applied for many other jobs.

Harapan dengan artikel yang bermanfaat tentang Past Perfect Tense yang dibagikan oleh ELSA Speak, dapat membantu Anda menguasai tata bahasa, rumus, serta penerapan dari Past Perfect Tense dan tidak keliru dengan tense lainnya. Semoga Anda belajar dengan baik!


Selengkapnya, Anda dapat merujuk ke kursus bahasa Inggris untuk pemula di ELSA Speak yang dirancang khusus untuk para profesional dan pelajar yang sibuk, membantu pengguna berbicara dan menggunakan bahasa Inggris dengan percaya diri seperti bahasa Indonesia.

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